Learn Python | Python Programming Language

Python Tutorial | Python Programming Language



This Python tutorial explains both the basics and more advanced ideas about Python. Our Python tutorial is made for both newbies and experts.

Python is a simple, high-level, object-oriented programming language that can be used for a wide range of tasks.

Python is also a scripting language that can be read out loud. Guido Van Rossum is known as the man who started programming in the Python language.

Our Python tutorial covers all aspects of Python programming, such as installation, control statements, Strings, Lists, Tuples, Dictionary, Modules, Exceptions, Date and Time, File I/O, Programs, etc. There are also Python interview questions that can help you learn more about the language.

What’s Python?

Python is a high-level, dynamic, and interpreted programming language that can be used for many different things. It lets you build applications using an object-oriented programming style. It is simple and easy to learn and provides lots of high-level data structures.

Python is a scripting language that is easy to learn but also powerful and flexible. This makes it a good choice for Application Development.

Python’s syntax, dynamic typing, and the fact that it is interpreted make it a great language for scripting and making apps quickly.

Python supports many different ways of programming, such as object-oriented, imperative, functional, and procedural.

Python is not made to work in a certain field, like web programming. It is called a “multipurpose programming language” because it can be used for web, enterprise, 3D CAD, and other things.

We don’t need to use data types to declare a variable because it is dynamically typed, so we can just write a=10 to give an integer value to an integer variable.

Python makes development and debugging fast because there is no compilation step, and the cycle of edit, test, and debug is very quick.

Python 2 versus Python 3

When a new version of a programming language comes out, it usually supports the same features and syntax as the old version. This makes it easier for projects to switch to the new version. But Python 2 and Python 3 are very different from each other.

Here is a list of what’s different between Python 2 and Python 3:

Python 2 has a statement called “print,” which can be used as “print “something” to show a string on the console. On the other hand, Python 3 has a function called print, which can be used as print(“something”) to show something on the console.
The user’s input is taken in by Python 2 through the function raw input(). It gives back the string that represents the value that the user types. We need to use the int() function in Python to turn it into an integer. On the other hand, Python 3 has a function called “input(),” which automatically figures out what kind of input the user has given. Using primitive functions like int(), str(), etc., we can convert this value to any other type.
In Python 2, strings are always of type ASCII. In Python 3, strings are always of type Unicode.
The xrange() function from Python 2 is not in Python 3. The xrange() function is a variation of the range() function. It returns an object that works like an iterator in Java. The range() function returns a list. For example, the range(0,3) function returns 0, 1, 2, and 3.
In Python 3, there is also a small change to how exceptions are dealt with. It says that a keyword is something that must be used. We will talk about it in the part of the Python programming tutorial called “Handling Exceptions.”

Program in Python

In Python, on the other hand, we can do this with just one statement.

print(“Hello World”) (“Hello World”)

Both programmes will print the same thing, but in Python, it only takes one statement and no semicolons or curly braces.
How to Write in Python

In the Python programming language, neither curly braces nor semicolons are used. It sounds like English. But Python uses the space between lines to show what code is in a block. Indenting is just adding a blank line before a statement when it’s needed. As an example,

def func():
statement 1
statement 2
statement N

In the example above, the function is made up of the statements that are on the same level from left to right. Most of the time, we can define indentation with four blank lines.

Python’s Past

Guido van Rossum made Python in 1991 at CWI in the Netherlands. The idea for the Python programming language came from the ABC programming language, or we can say that ABC is a predecessor of the Python language.

There is also a reason why the name Python was chosen. Guido van Rossum liked “Monty Python’s Flying Circus,” which was a popular BBC comedy show at the time. So he chose the name Python for the new programming language he had made.

Python has a large community all over the world, and new versions come out quickly.

Why should you learn Python?

Python gives the programmer a lot of useful tools. Because of these things, it is the most used and most popular language. We’ve listed a few of Python’s most important features below.

Simple to use and understand

Expressive Language
Translation of Language
Language that focuses on objects
The Open Source Language
Find out Standard Library
Support for GUI Programming
Allocating memory on the fly
A lot of different libraries and frameworks

Where do people use Python?

Python is a popular programming language that can be used for many different things. It is used in almost every technical field. Here are the different ways Python can be used.

Data Science
Date Mining
Desktop Programs
Applications that run on a console
Mobile Applications
Building software
Artificial Intelligence
Apps for the web
Applications for businesses
Applications for 3D CAD
Learning by Machine
Applications that use computer vision or image processing.
Voice Recognizers

Python Frameworks and Libraries That Are Used Often

Python has a large number of libraries and frameworks that are used in many fields, such as machine learning, artificial intelligence, web applications, etc. Here are some popular Python frameworks and libraries and what they do.

Web development (Server-side) – Django Flask, Pyramid, CherryPy
GUI-based programmes like Tk, PyGTK, PyQt, PyJs, and so on.
TensorFlow, PyTorch, Scikit-learn, Matplotlib, Scipy, and other tools for machine learning.
Math: Numpy, Pandas, and other programmes.

The print() Function in Python

The print() function sends the given object to the standard output device (the screen) or to the text stream file.

Python’s print() function is the most unique and useful of all the programming languages.

Here is a list of how the print() function is written.

print(*objects, sep=’ ‘, end=’\n’, file=sys.stdout, flush=False)

Let’s go through each one and explain what it means.

objects: An object is just a statement that needs to be printed. The * shows that there can be more than one statement.
sep – The print values are split up by the sep parameter. Default values is ‘ ‘.
end – At the end of the statement, the word “end” is written.
file: It must be an object that has a method called write(string).
flush: If true, the stream or file is forced to be flushed. By default, its value is false.

We use the sep and end arguments in the first print() statement. Just after the sep values, the given object is printed. The value of the end parameter that was shown at the end of the given object. As we can see, the result was printed by the second print() function after the three black lines.

Taking the User’s Input

Python has a function called “input()” that is used to get input from the user.

By default, the input() function only accepts string data, but what if we want to accept other types of data?

If we want the input to be an integer, we need to change the type of the input() function to an integer.

With the input() function, we can take any kind of value.

Operators in Python

Operators are the symbols that tell Python objects how to do different things. To work with Python data types, operators are the most important tools. Python also has operators for find membership and bitwise operations. In the next tutorial, we’ll learn about all of these operators and see how they work.

Conditional Statements in Python

Conditional statements help us run a certain block when a certain condition is met. In this tutorial, we will learn how to use the conditional expression to run a different block of statements. With Python, you can set up logical conditions with the if and else keywords. The elif keyword can also be used to make a statement about a condition.

Python if..else statement

Loops in Python

We may need to change the way the programme is going sometimes. It may be necessary to run a certain piece of code more than once. For this reason, programming languages have different kinds of loops that can repeat the same code more than once. Check out the tutorial below to learn more about the statements.

Loops in Python
For Loop in Python
While Loop in Python

Python Data Structures

Data structures are groups of data that can be kept together. They are also used to store data in an organised way. Python has data structures like list, tuple, dictionary, and set that are built in. Using data structures, we can do hard things.

Python List

Python’s list holds the list of items in the correct order. We can store a sequence of items in a list. Python’s list is “mutable,” which means that it can be changed after it has been made. The items of lists are enclosed within the square bracket [] and separated by the comma.

Visit the link below to learn more about lists.

List in Python
Python Functions for a List

Python Twiddle

Python Tuple is used to store the order of Python objects that can’t be changed. The tuple is similar to lists because the values of the items in a list can be changed, but the values of the items in a tuple can’t be changed because the tuple is immutable. Visit the Python Tuples to learn more about tuples.

String in Python

A string in Python is a group of characters. It is a list of the characters that are surrounded by single, double, or triple quotes.

The character data type is not supported by Python. A single letter like “p” is treated as a one-character string.

Stings don’t change either. We can’t change it after we’ve said it. Visit the link below to learn more about the string.


Python Dictionary is the most efficient way to store a large amount of data, and it is used to do so. It saves the information as a key-value pair. The key for each value is used to store it.

Keys must be unique, and values can be of any type, such as integer, list, tuple, etc.

It is a type that can be changed after it has been made. Empty dictionaries are made with the empty curly braces. To find out more, go to the dictionary’s full tutorial.

Sets in Python

A Python set is a group of items that are not in order. Each element in set must be unique and immutable. Sets can be changed, which means that we can change them at any point in the programme. If you want to learn more about sets, check out the links below.

Functional Programming in Python

In this part of the Python tutorial, tools like lambda and recursive functions, which are important for functional programming, are explained. These functions are very good at getting complicated tasks done. We define some important functions, such as reduce, map, and filter. Python has a module called functools that has different tools for functional programming. You can find out more about functional programming by going to the following tutorial.

Function in Python

The map() Function in Python
The filter() Function in Python
The Python function reduce()
Module functool in Python
Lambda Function in Python

File I/O in Python

Files are used to store data in a computer disc. In this tutorial, we’ll talk about Python’s built-in file object. Using Python script, we can open a file and do different things to it, like write, read, and add to it. You can open a file in different ways. We are given a good example to help us understand. Also, we will learn how to read and write to binary files.

Modules in Python

Python modules are files with Python code or functions in them. There are two kinds of modules in Python: modules that the user defines and modules that come with the language. A user-define module is one that the user makes. For example, our Python code that we save with the.py extension is a user-define module.

Built-in modules are modules that Python already has. To use the modules’ features, we need to add them to the programme that is already running.

Exceptions in Python

An exception is a strange thing that happens in a programme that causes the flow of the programme to be stopped.

When an exception happens, the programme stops running, and the rest of the code does not run. So, a run-time error that a Python script can’t handle is called an exception. An error is shown by a Python object called an exception.

Python CSV

“Comma-separated values,” which is what “csv” stands for, is a simple file format that puts tabular data in a certain way. It stores tabular data in plain text, like a spreadsheet or database, and has a standard format for exchanging data. When you open a.csv file in an Excel sheet, the data in the rows and columns set the standard format. Visit the link below to learn more about the CSV module.

Read a CSV file with Python
Write a CSV file with Python

Using Python to send mail

The Python script lets us send or read email. Modules in Python’s standard library can be used to handle different protocols like POP3 and IMAP. We will learn how to send an email from a Python script using the popular email service SMTP.

Python Magic Methods

The magic method in Python is the special method that gives a class “magic.” For example, _init_ or _str_ both start and end with two underscores.

Many magic methods are set up in the built-in classes. The dir() function can be used to find out how many magic methods a class has inherited. The method name has two underscores before and after it.

Python Magic Methods

The Python Oops Ideas

In Python, everything is an object, including integers, floats, functions, classes, and even the value “none.” Besides that, Python works with all oriented ideas. Here is a short explanation of how Python’s oops ideas work.

Classes and Objects: Python classes are the object’s blueprint. An object is a group of data and methods that do something with the data.
Inheritance is a method in which one class takes on the properties of another class.
Constructor: The Python method __init__() is a special method called a “function Object() { [native code] }.” When an object is created, this method is called by itself.
A data member is a variable that stores information about a class and its objects.

Visit the following sites to learn more about the oops concept.

Python Oops Concepts
Python Object and classes
Python Constructor
Python Inheritance
Python Polymorphism

Python Topics for the Future

Python has a lot of advanced and useful ideas that help the programmer figure out how to do hard things. Here are some ideas about these things.

Iterator in Python

An object that can be iterated on is called an iterator. It gives back one thing at a time. It can be done with __iter__() and __next__, two special methods ().

Visit our Python Iterators tutorial to learn more about iterators.

Generators in Python

The easiest way to make Iterators is to use Generators. Visit our Python Generators tutorial to learn more.

Decorators in Python

These are used to change how the function works. Decorators give you the option to wrap another function around it to change how it works without changing it permanently.

Visit the Python Decorators tutorial to learn more.

Python Connections to Databases

Python can be used with a number of databases. The full tutorial can be found at the links below. Python DBI-API says that standard sets of functions should be included in the database connectivity modules for each RDBMS product. We explain how to connect to all important databases with Python DBI-API.

Python MySQL

Environment Setup

Connecting to a database

Setting Up a New Database

How to Make Tables

Put in the operation


Update Operation

Come to Operation

Taking Care of Business

Python MongoDB

SQLite Python

SQLite Python

Python CGI

Python CGI stands for “Common Gateway Interface.” It is used to tell the webserver and a custom Python script how to share information. The Common Gateway Interface is a standard for how gateway programmes from outside the server, like HTTP Servers, can connect to the server. Visit the link below to learn more about Python CGI.


Before you can learn Python, you need to know the basics of programming.


Our Python tutorial is made to help both new and experienced programmers.


We promise that there is nothing wrong with this Python tutorial. But if you find a mistake, please let us know through the contact form.

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